48:2 Heshbon - Heshbon was one of the principal cities of the Moabites. Probably the enemies sat there in counsel, when they had taken it, against the other parts of the country.
48:3 Horoniam - Another city of Moab.
48:5 Luhith - To this city the Moabites fled for sanctuary, and flying made so great an out - cry that their enemies who pursued them heard it.
48:6 And be - Save your lives, though all ye have be lost.
48:7 Trusted - In thy idols. Chemosh - Chemosh was their principal idol.
48:9 Give wings - The Moabites have need of wings like a bird to escape that ruin which is coming upon them.
48:11 At ease - The Moabites ever since they began to be a people, have been a quiet people. Settled - Like a cask of wine, that has not been racked but has continued in the same state. Not emptied - A metaphor of wine which is drawn out from vessel to vessel, when it is drawn off the lees. It is expounded by the next words. Therefore - And this is the reason why they retain their old sins, pride, presumption, and luxury.
48:12 Wanderers - The Chaldeans, who wandered from their own country to conquer other people. Break his bottles - He had before compared the Moabites, to wine settled upon the lees, here he saith, that God would send those that should not only disturb, but destroy them.
48:13 Bethel - The golden calves, which Jeroboam set up at Dan and Bethel.
48:16 Is near - Josephus tells us this destruction came upon the Moabites five years after the siege of Jerusalem.
48:17 Staff - A staff and a rod are as well, ensigns of power and government, as instruments to punish offenders.
48:18 Dibon - Dibon, Aroer, and Ataroh were built by the children of Gad. It should seem the Moabites were not come into the possession of them. In thirst - It was a place well watered, but God threatens she should be in thirst, that is, driven into some dry, barren countries. The spoiler - The king of Babylon.
48:20 Arnon - Arnon was the name of a river; it was the border of Moab: probably the adjacent country or city might take its name from the river.
48:25 The horn - That is the beauty and the strength of Moab.
48:26 Drunken - Fill him with the intoxicating wine of God's vengeance.
48:27 Was he found - Why didst thou deal by Israel as men deal by thieves, when they are brought to shame?
48:28 O ye - Still the prophet speaks of the Moabites, as a people whose armies were routed, and calls to them to leave their houses in cities, not promising themselves any security, either to or from their houses, or from the walls of the cities, but to get them to rocks, which are naturally fortified, and from whence (if from any place) security may be promised.
48:30 I know - He shall never execute what he thinks to do. But - His boastings and his lies, still never effect his designs.
48:31 Kir - herez - A city of Moab.
48:32 Sibmah - Sibmah was famous in those days for vines. Jazer - Jazer was it seems first taken, and carried into captivity.
48:36 Pipes - The prophet means such pipes as they were wont to use at funerals, and other sad occasions.
48:40 He - Nebuchadnezzar shall come swiftly, and spread himself over Moab.
48:43 Fear - A variety of dangers upon all sides.
48:45 Heshbon - Heshbon was it seems a place of force. The crown - That is, the glory.
48:47 Bring again - It seems this is to be understood of a spiritual reduction of them, by calling them into the kingdom of the Messiah.